The unknown story of the Australian men and boats that helped in the war in the Pacific
By Ian W. Shaw • Published by Hachette Australia
RRP $32.99 in paperback • ISBN 9780733637292
In an operation reminiscent of the little ships of Dunkirk, the Rag Tag Fleet tells the story of how a collection of hundreds of Australian fishing trawlers, boats and schooners played a vital role in transporting essential supplies for the US and Australain forces across the South-East Pacific from mid-1942.
The US Army Small Ships Section operation was the brainchild of two American brothers, Bruce & Sheridan Fahnestock in concert with the Australian boat builder, Jack Savage. Sailing under the US flag, these requisitioned craft were able to operate without appearing to be military vessels. And the flat-bottomed craft were able to operate in waters which were too shallow for other boats. This enabled them to unload stores directly onto the beach for example, when port facilities were not available.
But it was the men commanding and crewing these vessels that were the true heroes. Men aged under 18 or over 50, or those deemed unfit for service in the Australian forces. They frequently ran the gauntlet of Japanese aircraft and ships with many paying the ultimate sacrifice. However it was not until November 2009 that the brave Australians were finally recognised for their service.
Ian Shaw summed it up best when he described his story as “being a book about ordinary people doing extraordinary things”.
By Kathryn Spurling
Published by New Holland • RRP $29.99 by paperback • ISBN 9781742579092
This is truly the forgotten story of a tragic event which was denied and ignored for decades by successive Australian governments.
The sinking of the Japanese requisitioned freighter, Montevideo Maru, by the US submarine Sturgeon, in 1942 resulted in the deaths of 1053 Australian civilians and Lark Force troops.
The Lark Force was raised in March 1941 and sent to Rabaul, New Britain to defend its strategically important harbour and airfield.
Unfortunately they were young, inexperienced, poorly equipped and untrained for the conditions and were inevitably overwhelmed by a superior Japanese force.
Australian soldiers, local volunteers and civilians were massacred by the Japanese with many of the survivors being crammed aboard the freighter. It left Rabaul for Japan on 22 June 1942 and was never seen again. The tales of the Australian soldiers who managed to escape into the mountains, some after being left for dead by the Japanese, are particularly harrowing.
Families in Australia were not informed of the tragedy that had befallen Rabaul and what followed was decades of official denial and subterfuge.
Kathryn Spurling does not hold back with her criticism of Australian Prime Ministers, particularly Robert Menzies who indicated that the matter should not be pursued because it might endanger trade with Japan.
Spurling had been approached to write this book by the Montevideo Association, but in doing so, to focus on the families and loved ones whose lives were impacted by the event.
By Tristan Moss
Published by Cambridge University Press
RRP $59.95 in hardcover • ISBN 9781107195967
Published as part of the Australian Army History Series, Guarding the Periphery examines the role of the Australian Army units in Papua New Guinea from 1951, when the Pacific Islands Regiment (PIR) was re-raised, until independence in 1975. The PIR was “first and foremost raised to defend Australia by guarding PNG, which was then the northernmost periphery of Australia’s territory”.
The period also coincided with increased tensions with Indonesia. Fearing that the PNG-Indonesia border could be subject to incursions similar to those encountered in Borneo, the Australian Government, in 1965, increased the strength of the PIR to two battalions.
Historian Tristan Moss, in his introduction, comments that “Scholarly work on the Australian Army in PNG is scarce and is limited to a handful of narrative regimental histories and theses”.
In writing this book, Moss has sought to correct this oversight.
He explores the operational, social and racial aspects of this unique force. In late 1967 the force contained 2,216 Papua New Guineans and 367 Australians and by 1972, the 2,800 PNG troops constituted one in ten regular soldiers in the Australian Army. And while some Australian soldiers found serving in PNG to be less than desirable, many found the experience of working with PNG troops to be richly rewarding.
Tristan Moss has crafted an invaluable history of an oft-forgotten chapter of the Australian Army.
By Donna and Michael Feichtner, Gilles Prileaux and Matthieu Beuvin
Published by New Holland • RRP $35.00 in hardcover • ISBN 9781742579719
Naours is a pretty little French village located a few miles from Vignacourt, the town where the photographic plates which formed the basis of the “Lost Diggers” photos were discovered. Vignacourt was used as a staging area for troops moving up to and back from the Somme battlefields and many Australia troops took the opportunity to visit the famous caves at Naours.
These medieval limestone caves were first used by local villages as a safe haven from marauding armies during the Middle Ages. They created an underground city comprising a labyrinth of tunnels with hundreds of individual chambers. Sealed off and forgotten, they were rediscovered at the end of the 19th Century and soon became a major tourist attraction.
But it was only after the discovery of the “Lost Diggers” collection that Giles Prileaux was alerted to the fact that an incredible collection of graffiti and inscriptions of nearly 3000 WW1 soldiers existed on the walls of the nearby Naours caves.
In a painstaking process, Australian authors Donna and Michael Feichtner and French archaeologists Gilles Prileaux and Matthieu Beuvin have matched signatures with the names and biographies of 46 of the Australian soldiers. Of the 46, 14 subsequently died on the battlefield while some were wounded in action and repatriated to Australia.
This beautifully illustrated book is a fitting memory to those who went to fight in a far-away land.
The Lightning Keepers
The AIF’s Alphabet Company in the Great War
By Damien Finlayson
Published by Big Sky Publishing
RRP $34.99 in hardcover ISBN 9781925520347
I must start by confessing to having never heard of the Australian Electrical and Mechanical Mining and Boring Company or of their achievements in the Great War.
So this latest book from Damien Finlayson is one of great surprise and delight. It also continues the story from Finlayson’s previous book “Crumps and Camouflets” which traced the history of Australian tunnelling in the First World War.
For obvious reasons, the name proved too cumbersome for most diggers and so in unofficial circles it soon became known as the Alphabet Company.
Sent to France in May 1916, the company of 260 men soon proved its worth in its support of the frontline tunnelling companies.
Led by Major Victor Morse, the Alphabeticals arrived in France with an array of equipment designed to improve the conditions of the troops working underground. They operated and maintained water pumps, generators, ventilation fans, drilling equipment and other ingenious devices in extreme circumstances.
But it was not only the tunnelers who benefited from their expertise. The Alphabet Company installed many power plants for lighting headquarters dugouts throughout the Western Front.
This is the first account of the Alphabeticals and it is a credit to Finlayson that he has produced such a fine detailed history given that the unit’s original war diary was destroyed at the very end of the war.
I was recently in Darwin for a defence conference so I took the time out to do a 4-hour Bombing of Darwin tour one morning.
You can link here for details of the tour – http://www.bombingofdarwin.com.au – but be aware that it does not run in the ‘wet’ – the hot steamy months of summer, except around the anniversary of the bombing of Darwin in February.
The tour was very interesting. It’s led by Garry Gallagher whose an affable, likeable character with knockabout charm and who happily entertains his small tour groups with anecdotes and stories of the time when World War II really came to the Australian mainland.
During the tour, he pointed out the key locations where little evidence remains today of the damage inflicted on this small northern outpost of Australia. There were significant casualties but the impact was played down in the press of the day, probably for fear of scaring the general population but there would also have been a reluctance to let the enemy know how successful they had been.
I did not know, for instance, of the Scot John Gordon who betrayed Australia. He was found signalling to the Japanese from his bush camp on the other side of Darwin harbour.
Through his tour, Garry has met people with first hand experience of Darwin and the bombing and that has enhanced his understanding of the events. Much of this information has found its way into his book, ‘A Nice Day for Flying’ which can be purchased via his website. There are some interesting photos in the book too.
This book does not have an index nor does it have a bibliography that might point to the primary sources he’s referenced, although he does acknowledge them throughout the book.
But combined with Garry’s commentary throughout the tour, the book is a handy ‘aide memoir’ to his rapid fire anecdotes and observations about a time in our near past when Darwin bore the brunt of the enemy’s well coordinated and well planned attacks in World War II.
The Secret Code-Breakers of Central Bureau
How Australia’s signals-intelligence network helped win the Pacific War
By David Dufty
Published by Scribe
RRP $49.99 in hardcover
Prior to the commencement of the Second World War, Australia had little expertise in signals intelligence and relied upon Britain for any relevant international intelligence. But with the outbreak of war with Germany and the impending entry of Japan, Australia was forced to ramp up its capabilities.
The result was the creation of the Central Bureau located in Brisbane and Melbourne. Its task was to monitor Japanese radio traffic and ultimately, break their codes. While this was achieved very early (an Australian, Eric Nave working with British intelligence in Singapore, actually cracked the Japanese air force code before Japan had entered the war), the Japanese, like all countries, changed their codes on a regular basis and so the work was ongoing.
David Dufty’s absorbing book reveals how Australia built a large sophisticated intelligence network from scratch and how their code-breakers played a vital role in the Battles of Midway, Milne Bay, the Coral Sea, Hollandia and Leyte. He introduces us to some fascinating characters such as Florence Violet McKenzie who founded the Women’s Emergency Signalling Corp, an organisation whose sole aim was to provide signals training for women.
And it was these women who eventually became the nucleus of the navy’s special signals workforce. A fascinating book.